The Internet is the infrastructure that connects computers worldwide. Much like a rail or road network connects roads and cities.
The World Wide Web (WWW) is essentially the software program that enables computers to connect and interact with each other. It is the world of computers.
A Web Page is a file, which can be document or image etc. that is accessible to computers worldwide via the World Wide Web.
A Website is a collection of linked Web Pages. A Website can be static, fluid, interactive or a combination.
A browser is the software program on a computer / tablet / phone that connects the device to the World Wide Web (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari etc).
Domain Name is a website or webpage name i.e. www.dalass.co.uk. Domain names are leased from registered companies such as GoDaddy.com, 123Reg.co.uk, name.com etc. on a first come basis and range in price. The registered company you chose registers your chosen domain name with relevant authority (such as ICANN the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.
Domain Name System (DNS) is basically the phonebook of websites.
.COM .CO.UK .ORG .EDU etc. is part of a Website address. It is the end part and generally denotes the websites region or type.
Hosting (website hosting service) is fundamentally renting space on the World Wide Web for a webpage or website. You can host your own website on your own computer but your computer and internet connection need to be constantly available, secure, and able to deal with numerous other computers connecting to it to view your website at the same time. It wouldn’t take many connections to slow access to your website to a crawl or even a crash, so hosting your own website is not recommended.